Use ActiveRecord::Enum for your enumerations

I’ve recently started working on a rails codebase, where I noticed something quite interresting.

Let’s say we have a model called Post. A post can either be draft or published. This data is saved in the status column. In programming, we say that status is an enumeration, because it has a finite number of possible values (draft and published).

In this post, I’ll try to show you what is wrong with the way post status is handled in that codebase, and how we can do better using ActiveRecord::Enum

Current approach

This is how, status is handled in that codebase:

# Post
#  status: text

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  validate :status, inclusion: %w(draft published)

The status data is saved as a string in the database, and a model validation is implemented to ensure it’s always a valid value.

What is wrong ?

That approach for sure works well, but it has some drawbacks:

Instead of handling an enumeration from scratch, using ActiveRecord::Enum provides you flexibility and very cool features you’ll need.

Introducing ActiveRecord::Enum


Let’s handle the post status, a better way.

That’s it. We are now handling our post status with ActiveRecord::Enum. Let’s see now, what we have access to.


Query status

# Check if post is draft

# Without ActiveRecord::Enum
post.status == 'draft'

# With ActiveRecord::Enum

If you don’t like cool features ;), you can still query the status the old way, despite that status is now an integer.

Update status

# Set post status to published

# Without ActiveRecord::Enum
post.update(status: 'published')

# With ActiveRecord::Enum

Here again, you can still update the status the old way, despite that status is now an integer.


With ActiveRecord::Enum, no need to add any inclusion validation as it’s handled automatically.

  post.update!(status: 'some_undefined_status')

  # it raises ArgumentError, "some_undefined_status is not a valid status"


One thing I love in rails models is scopes. ActiveRecord::Enum automatically provides scopes for each of your enum values.

# Returns the same values as Post.where(status: :draft)

# Returns the same values as Post.where(status: :published)


Because enums values are mapped to integers in the database, you can rename them without needing to update your database. Thus, we can safely rename published to live:

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  enum status: { draft: 0, live: 1 }

Enums in depth

Use a Hash not an Array

In this post, we’ve declared our status enum as a Hash. However, it’s possible but not recommended, to declare it as an Array.

With a Hash, we set explicitly the mapping between enum values and integers that will be saved in the database. With an Array, that mapping is handled by Rails and is based on the enum values order in the Array.

# Don't do this at home
class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  enum :status, %i(draft published)
# When using an array, the mapping of enum values to integer is automatic and order based.
# draft => 0, published => 1

The array declaration works well, but it’s error-prone. If you or one of your teammate, changes the enum values order, or introduce a new value in the bad place, shit will happen.

# Here, we interchange the positions of draft and published
class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  enum :status, %i(published draft)
# The mapping is messed up, due to the order changes.
# published => 0, draft => 1

This simple and innocent looking code changes, just break our application. From now, draft posts will be seen as published, while published ones will be seen as drafts. With a Hash declaration, the mapping is clear, and this error is unlikely to occur.

Inside Raw SQL

Using Arel, it’s very easy to query statuses.

posts = Post.where(.......).where(status: 'draft')

What if we have to write raw SQL and can’t just use arel goodies.

posts = Post.where('status = ?', 'draft')
# Won't work and will even raise an error

This query won’t work because the status column is an integer, hence it doesn’t recognize 'draft' as a valid value. We have to supply the integer value of the status. Here’s a workaround:

posts = Post.where('status = ?', Post.statuses['draft'])
# Post.statuses = { draft: 0, published: 1 }

This again, is one of the goodies of ActiveRecord::Enum. Thanks to Post.statuses, you don’t have to hard code, the status integer value inside your query.

Multiple enums inside a model

When using multiple enums, scopes and helper methods generated by Rails, can be confusing. Let’s handle the “Made In” country of a product as an enum.

class Post
  enum :status, { draft: 0, published: 1 }
  enum :made_in, { fr: 0, us: 1 }

We now have 4 scopes generated for our enums

You’ll agree with me that, these scopes names are very confusing. One of the purpose of programming in ruby and rails, is code eloquency and beautifulness. Let’s bring some eloquency to these scopes, by leveraging enums suffixes and prefixes.

We’ll add status as a suffix for the status enum, and made_in as a prefix for the made_in enum.

class Post
  enum :status, { draft: 0, published: 1 },  _suffix: true
  enum :made_in, { fr: 0, us: 1 }, _prefix: true

We now have the following scopes:

Now, the scopes are more clear and self explanatory.

Indexes are your friends

You’ll probably be querying your model a lot, based on the enums it contains. Thus, don’t forget to add an index, so the queries can be faster and optimized. To understand database indexes in depth, check this article.

Wrapping Up